/*
Copyright (c) 2004-2019, Lode Vandevenne
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
"AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR
CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
*/
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include "quickcg.h"
using namespace QuickCG;
/*
g++ *.cpp -lSDL -O3 -W -Wall -ansi -pedantic
g++ *.cpp -lSDL
*/
// set to 1 to use the horizontal floor algorithm (contributed by Ádám Tóth in 2019),
// or to 0 to use the slower vertical floor algorithm.
#define FLOOR_HORIZONTAL 1
#define screenWidth 640
#define screenHeight 480
#define texWidth 64 // must be power of two
#define texHeight 64 // must be power of two
#define mapWidth 24
#define mapHeight 24
int worldMap[mapWidth][mapHeight] =
{
{8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,4,4,6,4,4,6,4,6,4,4,4,6,4},
{8,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,4},
{8,0,3,3,0,0,0,0,0,8,8,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,6},
{8,0,0,3,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,6},
{8,0,3,3,0,0,0,0,0,8,8,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,4},
{8,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8,4,0,0,0,0,0,6,6,6,0,6,4,6},
{8,8,8,8,0,8,8,8,8,8,8,4,4,4,4,4,4,6,0,0,0,0,0,6},
{7,7,7,7,0,7,7,7,7,0,8,0,8,0,8,0,8,4,0,4,0,6,0,6},
{7,7,0,0,0,0,0,0,7,8,0,8,0,8,0,8,8,6,0,0,0,0,0,6},
{7,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8,6,0,0,0,0,0,4},
{7,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8,6,0,6,0,6,0,6},
{7,7,0,0,0,0,0,0,7,8,0,8,0,8,0,8,8,6,4,6,0,6,6,6},
{7,7,7,7,0,7,7,7,7,8,8,4,0,6,8,4,8,3,3,3,0,3,3,3},
{2,2,2,2,0,2,2,2,2,4,6,4,0,0,6,0,6,3,0,0,0,0,0,3},
{2,2,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,4,3,0,0,0,0,0,3},
{2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,4,3,0,0,0,0,0,3},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,4,4,4,4,4,6,0,6,3,3,0,0,0,3,3},
{2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,2,1,2,2,2,6,6,0,0,5,0,5,0,5},
{2,2,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,2,0,0,0,2,2,0,5,0,5,0,0,0,5,5},
{2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,0,0,2,5,0,5,0,5,0,5,0,5},
{1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,5},
{2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,0,0,2,5,0,5,0,5,0,5,0,5},
{2,2,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,2,0,0,0,2,2,0,5,0,5,0,0,0,5,5},
{2,2,2,2,1,2,2,2,2,2,2,1,2,2,2,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5}
};
Uint32 buffer[screenHeight][screenWidth]; // y-coordinate first because it works per scanline
int main(int /*argc*/, char */*argv*/[])
{
double posX = 22.0, posY = 11.5; //x and y start position
double dirX = -1.0, dirY = 0.0; //initial direction vector
double planeX = 0.0, planeY = 0.66; //the 2d raycaster version of camera plane
double time = 0; //time of current frame
double oldTime = 0; //time of previous frame
std::vector texture[8];
for(int i = 0; i < 8; i++) texture[i].resize(texWidth * texHeight);
screen(screenWidth,screenHeight, 0, "Raycaster");
//load some textures
unsigned long tw, th, error = 0;
error |= loadImage(texture[0], tw, th, "pics/eagle.png");
error |= loadImage(texture[1], tw, th, "pics/redbrick.png");
error |= loadImage(texture[2], tw, th, "pics/purplestone.png");
error |= loadImage(texture[3], tw, th, "pics/greystone.png");
error |= loadImage(texture[4], tw, th, "pics/bluestone.png");
error |= loadImage(texture[5], tw, th, "pics/mossy.png");
error |= loadImage(texture[6], tw, th, "pics/wood.png");
error |= loadImage(texture[7], tw, th, "pics/colorstone.png");
if(error) { std::cout << "error loading images" << std::endl; return 1; }
//start the main loop
while(!done())
{
#if FLOOR_HORIZONTAL
//FLOOR CASTING
for(int y = screenHeight / 2 + 1; y < screenHeight; ++y)
{
// rayDir for leftmost ray (x = 0) and rightmost ray (x = w)
float rayDirX0 = dirX - planeX;
float rayDirY0 = dirY - planeY;
float rayDirX1 = dirX + planeX;
float rayDirY1 = dirY + planeY;
// Current y position compared to the center of the screen (the horizon)
int p = y - screenHeight / 2;
// Vertical position of the camera.
// NOTE: with 0.5, it's exactly in the center between floor and ceiling,
// matching also how the walls are being raycasted. For different values
// than 0.5, a separate loop must be done for ceiling and floor since
// they're no longer symmetrical.
float posZ = 0.5 * screenHeight;
// Horizontal distance from the camera to the floor for the current row.
// 0.5 is the z position exactly in the middle between floor and ceiling.
// NOTE: this is affine texture mapping, which is not perspective correct
// except for perfectly horizontal and vertical surfaces like the floor.
// NOTE: this formula is explained as follows: The camera ray goes through
// the following two points: the camera itself, which is at a certain
// height (posZ), and a point in front of the camera (through an imagined
// vertical plane containing the screen pixels) with horizontal distance
// 1 from the camera, and vertical position p lower than posZ (posZ - p). When going
// through that point, the line has vertically traveled by p units and
// horizontally by 1 unit. To hit the floor, it instead needs to travel by
// posZ units. It will travel the same ratio horizontally. The ratio was
// 1 / p for going through the camera plane, so to go posZ times farther
// to reach the floor, we get that the total horizontal distance is posZ / p.
float rowDistance = posZ / p;
// calculate the real world step vector we have to add for each x (parallel to camera plane)
// adding step by step avoids multiplications with a weight in the inner loop
float floorStepX = rowDistance * (rayDirX1 - rayDirX0) / screenWidth;
float floorStepY = rowDistance * (rayDirY1 - rayDirY0) / screenWidth;
// real world coordinates of the leftmost column. This will be updated as we step to the right.
float floorX = posX + rowDistance * rayDirX0;
float floorY = posY + rowDistance * rayDirY0;
for(int x = 0; x < screenWidth; ++x)
{
// the cell coord is simply got from the integer parts of floorX and floorY
int cellX = (int)(floorX);
int cellY = (int)(floorY);
// get the texture coordinate from the fractional part
int tx = (int)(texWidth * (floorX - cellX)) & (texWidth - 1);
int ty = (int)(texHeight * (floorY - cellY)) & (texHeight - 1);
floorX += floorStepX;
floorY += floorStepY;
// choose texture and draw the pixel
int checkerBoardPattern = (int(cellX + cellY)) & 1;
int floorTexture;
if(checkerBoardPattern == 0) floorTexture = 3;
else floorTexture = 4;
int ceilingTexture = 6;
Uint32 color;
// floor
color = texture[floorTexture][texWidth * ty + tx];
color = (color >> 1) & 8355711; // make a bit darker
buffer[y][x] = color;
//ceiling (symmetrical, at screenHeight - y - 1 instead of y)
color = texture[ceilingTexture][texWidth * ty + tx];
color = (color >> 1) & 8355711; // make a bit darker
buffer[screenHeight - y - 1][x] = color;
}
}
#endif // FLOOR_HORIZONTAL
// WALL CASTING
for(int x = 0; x < w; x++)
{
//calculate ray position and direction
double cameraX = 2 * x / double(w) - 1; //x-coordinate in camera space
double rayDirX = dirX + planeX * cameraX;
double rayDirY = dirY + planeY * cameraX;
//which box of the map we're in
int mapX = int(posX);
int mapY = int(posY);
//length of ray from current position to next x or y-side
double sideDistX;
double sideDistY;
//length of ray from one x or y-side to next x or y-side
double deltaDistX = (rayDirX == 0) ? 1e30 : std::abs(1 / rayDirX);
double deltaDistY = (rayDirY == 0) ? 1e30 : std::abs(1 / rayDirY);
double perpWallDist;
//what direction to step in x or y-direction (either +1 or -1)
int stepX;
int stepY;
int hit = 0; //was there a wall hit?
int side; //was a NS or a EW wall hit?
//calculate step and initial sideDist
if(rayDirX < 0)
{
stepX = -1;
sideDistX = (posX - mapX) * deltaDistX;
}
else
{
stepX = 1;
sideDistX = (mapX + 1.0 - posX) * deltaDistX;
}
if(rayDirY < 0)
{
stepY = -1;
sideDistY = (posY - mapY) * deltaDistY;
}
else
{
stepY = 1;
sideDistY = (mapY + 1.0 - posY) * deltaDistY;
}
//perform DDA
while (hit == 0)
{
//jump to next map square, either in x-direction, or in y-direction
if(sideDistX < sideDistY)
{
sideDistX += deltaDistX;
mapX += stepX;
side = 0;
}
else
{
sideDistY += deltaDistY;
mapY += stepY;
side = 1;
}
//Check if ray has hit a wall
if(worldMap[mapX][mapY] > 0) hit = 1;
}
//Calculate distance of perpendicular ray (Euclidean distance would give fisheye effect!)
if(side == 0) perpWallDist = (sideDistX - deltaDistX);
else perpWallDist = (sideDistY - deltaDistY);
//Calculate height of line to draw on screen
int lineHeight = (int)(h / perpWallDist);
//calculate lowest and highest pixel to fill in current stripe
int drawStart = -lineHeight / 2 + h / 2;
if(drawStart < 0) drawStart = 0;
int drawEnd = lineHeight / 2 + h / 2;
if(drawEnd >= h) drawEnd = h - 1;
//texturing calculations
int texNum = worldMap[mapX][mapY] - 1; //1 subtracted from it so that texture 0 can be used!
//calculate value of wallX
double wallX; //where exactly the wall was hit
if(side == 0) wallX = posY + perpWallDist * rayDirY;
else wallX = posX + perpWallDist * rayDirX;
wallX -= floor((wallX));
//x coordinate on the texture
int texX = int(wallX * double(texWidth));
if(side == 0 && rayDirX > 0) texX = texWidth - texX - 1;
if(side == 1 && rayDirY < 0) texX = texWidth - texX - 1;
// TODO: an integer-only bresenham or DDA like algorithm could make the texture coordinate stepping faster
// How much to increase the texture coordinate per screen pixel
double step = 1.0 * texHeight / lineHeight;
// Starting texture coordinate
double texPos = (drawStart - h / 2 + lineHeight / 2) * step;
for(int y = drawStart; y < drawEnd; y++)
{
// Cast the texture coordinate to integer, and mask with (texHeight - 1) in case of overflow
int texY = (int)texPos & (texHeight - 1);
texPos += step;
Uint32 color = texture[texNum][texHeight * texY + texX];
//make color darker for y-sides: R, G and B byte each divided through two with a "shift" and an "and"
if(side == 1) color = (color >> 1) & 8355711;
buffer[y][x] = color;
}
#if !FLOOR_HORIZONTAL
//FLOOR CASTING
double floorXWall, floorYWall; //x, y position of the floor texel at the bottom of the wall
//4 different wall directions possible
if(side == 0 && rayDirX > 0)
{
floorXWall = mapX;
floorYWall = mapY + wallX;
}
else if(side == 0 && rayDirX < 0)
{
floorXWall = mapX + 1.0;
floorYWall = mapY + wallX;
}
else if(side == 1 && rayDirY > 0)
{
floorXWall = mapX + wallX;
floorYWall = mapY;
}
else
{
floorXWall = mapX + wallX;
floorYWall = mapY + 1.0;
}
double distWall, distPlayer, currentDist;
distWall = perpWallDist;
distPlayer = 0.0;
if(drawEnd < 0) drawEnd = h; //becomes < 0 when the integer overflows
//draw the floor from drawEnd to the bottom of the screen
for(int y = drawEnd + 1; y < h; y++)
{
currentDist = h / (2.0 * y - h); //you could make a small lookup table for this instead
double weight = (currentDist - distPlayer) / (distWall - distPlayer);
double currentFloorX = weight * floorXWall + (1.0 - weight) * posX;
double currentFloorY = weight * floorYWall + (1.0 - weight) * posY;
int floorTexX, floorTexY;
floorTexX = int(currentFloorX * texWidth) & (texWidth - 1);
floorTexY = int(currentFloorY * texHeight) & (texHeight - 1);
int checkerBoardPattern = ((int)currentFloorX + (int)currentFloorY) & 1;
int floorTexture;
if(checkerBoardPattern == 0) floorTexture = 3;
else floorTexture = 4;
//floor
buffer[y][x] = (texture[floorTexture][texWidth * floorTexY + floorTexX] >> 1) & 8355711;
//ceiling (symmetrical)
buffer[h - y][x] = texture[6][texWidth * floorTexY + floorTexX];
}
#endif // !FLOOR_HORIZONTAL
}
drawBuffer(buffer[0]);
// No need to clear the screen here, since everything is overdrawn with floor and ceiling
//timing for input and FPS counter
oldTime = time;
time = getTicks();
double frameTime = (time - oldTime) / 1000.0; //frametime is the time this frame has taken, in seconds
print(1.0 / frameTime); //FPS counter
redraw();
//speed modifiers
double moveSpeed = frameTime * 3.0; //the constant value is in squares/second
double rotSpeed = frameTime * 2.0; //the constant value is in radians/second
readKeys();
//move forward if no wall in front of you
if (keyDown(SDLK_UP))
{
if(worldMap[int(posX + dirX * moveSpeed)][int(posY)] == false) posX += dirX * moveSpeed;
if(worldMap[int(posX)][int(posY + dirY * moveSpeed)] == false) posY += dirY * moveSpeed;
}
//move backwards if no wall behind you
if(keyDown(SDLK_DOWN))
{
if(worldMap[int(posX - dirX * moveSpeed)][int(posY)] == false) posX -= dirX * moveSpeed;
if(worldMap[int(posX)][int(posY - dirY * moveSpeed)] == false) posY -= dirY * moveSpeed;
}
//rotate to the right
if(keyDown(SDLK_RIGHT))
{
//both camera direction and camera plane must be rotated
double oldDirX = dirX;
dirX = dirX * cos(-rotSpeed) - dirY * sin(-rotSpeed);
dirY = oldDirX * sin(-rotSpeed) + dirY * cos(-rotSpeed);
double oldPlaneX = planeX;
planeX = planeX * cos(-rotSpeed) - planeY * sin(-rotSpeed);
planeY = oldPlaneX * sin(-rotSpeed) + planeY * cos(-rotSpeed);
}
//rotate to the left
if(keyDown(SDLK_LEFT))
{
//both camera direction and camera plane must be rotated
double oldDirX = dirX;
dirX = dirX * cos(rotSpeed) - dirY * sin(rotSpeed);
dirY = oldDirX * sin(rotSpeed) + dirY * cos(rotSpeed);
double oldPlaneX = planeX;
planeX = planeX * cos(rotSpeed) - planeY * sin(rotSpeed);
planeY = oldPlaneX * sin(rotSpeed) + planeY * cos(rotSpeed);
}
}
}